sane(7)                  SANE Scanner Access Now Easy                  sane(7)


       sane - Scanner Access Now Easy: API for accessing scanners


       SANE  is an application programming interface (API) that provides stan‐
       dardized access to any raster image scanner hardware. The  standardized
       interface  makes  it possible to write just one driver for each scanner
       device instead of one driver for each scanner and application.

       While SANE is primarily targeted at a UNIX  environment,  the  standard
       has been carefully designed to make it possible to implement the API on
       virtually any hardware or operating system.

       This manual page provides a summary of the information available  about

       If  you  have  trouble getting your scanner detected, read the PROBLEMS


       An application that uses the SANE interface is called a SANE  frontend.
       A  driver  that implements the SANE interface is called a SANE backend.
       A meta backend provides some means to manage one or  more  other  back‐


       The  package  `sane-backends' contains a lot of backends, documentation
       (including the SANE standard), networking support, and the command line
       frontend   `scanimage'.    The   frontends  `xscanimage',  `xcam',  and
       `scanadf' are included in the package `sane-frontends'.  Both  packages
       can       be      downloaded      from      the      SANE      homepage
       (  Information about other frontends  and
       backends can also be found on the SANE homepage.


       The  following  sections  provide  short descriptions and links to more
       information about several aspects of SANE.  A name  with  a  number  in
       parenthesis (e.g.  `sane-dll(5)') points to a manual page. In this case
       `man   5   sane-dll'   will   display   the    page.    Entries    like
       `/usr/local/share/doc/sane-backends/sane.tex'  are  references  to text
       files  that  were  copied   to   the   SANE   documentation   directory
       (/usr/local/share/doc/sane-backends/)  during  installation. Everything
       else is a URL to a resource on the web.

       SANE homepage
         Information on all aspects of SANE including a tutorial and a link to
         the    SANE    FAQ    can    be   found   on   the   SANE   homepage:

       SANE device lists
         The SANE device lists contain information about the  status  of  SANE
         support  for  a  specific device. If your scanner is not listed there
         (either supported or unsupported), please contact us. See section HOW
         CAN  YOU HELP SANE for details. There are lists for specific releases
         of SANE, for the current development version  and  a  search  engine:   The  lists
         are also installed on your system at  /usr/local/share/doc/sane-back‐

       SANE mailing list
         There  is a mailing list for the purpose of discussing the SANE stan‐
         dard and its implementations: sane-devel.  Despite its name, the list
         is  not  only  intended for developers, but also for users. There are
         also  some  more  lists  for  special  topics,  however,  for  users,
         sane-devel  is  the  right  list.  How  to subscribe and unsubscribe:

       SANE IRC channel
         The IRC (Internet Relay Chat) channel  #sane  can  be  found  on  the
         Freenode  network  ( It's for discussing SANE prob‐
         lems, talking about development and general  SANE  related  chatting.
         Before asking for help, please read the other documentation mentioned
         in this manual page. The channel's topic is also used  for  announce‐
         ments  of  problems  with  SANE  infrastructure  (mailing  lists, web
         server, etc.).

       Compiling and installing SANE
         Look at /usr/local/share/doc/sane-backends/README and  the  os-depen‐
         dent  README  files  for  information  about compiling and installing

       SCSI configuration
         For information  about  various  systems  and  SCSI  controllers  see

       USB configuration
         For information about USB configuration see sane-usb(5).


         Command-line frontend. See scanimage(1).

         SANE network daemon that allows remote clients to access image acqui‐
         sition devices available on the local host. See saned(8).

         Command-line tool to find SCSI and USB scanners and  determine  their
         Unix device files. See sane-find-scanner(1).

       Also,  have a look at the sane-frontends package (including xscanimage,
       xcam,   and   scanadf)   and   the   frontend   information   page   at


         The SANE backend for Abaton flatbed scanners supports the Scan 300/GS
         (8bit, 256 levels of gray) and  the  Scan  300/S  (black  and  white,
         untested). See sane-abaton(5) for details.

         This  backend  supports  AGFA  Focus  scanners  and the Siemens S9036
         (untested).  See sane-agfafocus(5) for details.

         The SANE backend for Apple flatbed scanners  supports  the  following
         scanners:   AppleScanner,   OneScanner   and   ColorOneScanner.   See
         sane-apple(5) for details.

         The SANE Artec backend supports  several  Artec/Ultima  SCSI  flatbed
         scanners  as  well as the BlackWidow BW4800SP and the Plustek 19200S.
         See sane-artec(5) for details.

         The SANE artec_eplus48u backend supports the scanner Artec E+ 48U and
         re-badged  models like Tevion MD 9693, Medion MD 9693, Medion MD 9705
         and Trust Easy Webscan 19200. See sane-artec_eplus48u(5) for details.

         This is a SANE backend for using the Artec AS6E parallel port  inter‐
         face scanner. See sane-as6e(5) for details.

         This  backend  supports several Avision based scanners. This includes
         the original Avision scanners (like AV 630, AV 620, ...) as  well  as
         the  HP  ScanJet 53xx and 74xx series, Fujitsu ScanPartner, some Mit‐
         subishi and Minolta film-scanners.  See sane-avision(5) for details.

         The bh backend provides access to Bell+Howell Copiscan II series doc‐
         ument scanners. See sane-bh(5) for details.

         The  canon  backend  supports  the  CanoScan  300,  CanoScan 600, and
         CanoScan 2700F SCSI flatbed scanners. See sane-canon(5) for details.

         The canon630u backend supports the CanoScan 630u and 636u  USB  scan‐
         ners.  See sane-canon630u(5) for details.

         The  canon_dr  backend  supports the Canon DR-Series ADF SCSI and USB
         scanners. See sane-canon_dr(5) for details.

         The canon_pp backend supports the CanoScan FB330P, FB630P, N340P  and
         N640P parallel port scanners.  See sane-canon_pp(5) for details.

         This  backend  provides  support for Corex Cardscan USB scanners. See
         sane-cardscan(5) for details.

         This  is  a  SANE  backend  for  Nikon  Coolscan  film-scanners.  See
         sane-coolscan(5) for details.

         This  is  a  SANE  backend  for  Nikon  Coolscan  film-scanners.  See
         sane-coolscan2(5) or for details.

         The epjitsu backend provides  support  for  Epson-based  Fujitsu  USB
         scanners. See sane-epjitsu(5) for details.

         The SANE epson backend provides support for Epson SCSI, parallel port
         and USB flatbed scanners. See sane-epson(5) for details.

         The fujitsu backend provides support for most Fujitsu SCSI  and  USB,
         flatbed and adf scanners. See sane-fujitsu(5) for details.

         The  genesys  backend  provides support for several scanners based on
         the Genesys Logic GL646, GL841, GL843, GL847 and GL124 chips like the
         Medion 6471 and Hewlett-Packard 2300c.
          See sane-genesys(5) for details.

         The  gt68xx  backend  provides  support  for  scanners  based  on the
         Grandtech GT-6801 and GT-6816 chips like the Artec  Ultima  2000  and
         several  Mustek  BearPaw  CU  and  TA  models.  Some Genius, Lexmark,
         Medion, Packard Bell, Plustek, and Trust scanners are also supported.
         See sane-gt68xx(5) for details.

         The  SANE hp backend provides access to Hewlett-Packard ScanJet scan‐
         ners  which  support  SCL  (Scanner  Control  Language  by  HP).  See
         sane-hp(5) for details.

         The  SANE  backend  for  the  Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 5S scanner. See
         sane-hpsj5s(5) for details.

         The SANE backend for the Hewlett-Packard  ScanJet  3500  series.  See
         sane-hp3500(5) for details.

         The  SANE  backend  for  the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 3900 series. See
         sane-hp3900(5) for details.

         The SANE backend for the Hewlett-Packard  ScanJet  4200  series.  See
         sane-hp4200(5) for details.

         The  SANE  backend  for the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 54XXC series. See
         sane-hp5400(5) for details.

         The SANE backend for the Hewlett-Packard LaserJet M1005 scanner.  See
         sane-hpljm1005(5) for details.

         The  SANE  backend  for  the Ricoh IS450 family of SCSI scanners. See
         sane-hs2p(5) for details.

         The  SANE  backend  for  some  IBM  and  Ricoh  SCSI  scanners.   See
         sane-ibm(5) for details.

         The SANE backend for some large Kodak scanners. See sane-kodak(5) for

         The SANE backend for Kodak AiO printer/scanners. See sane-kodakaio(5)
         for details.

         The    SANE   backend   for   Panasonic   KV-S102xC   scanners.   See
         sane-kvs1025(5) for details.

         This backend supports the Leo S3 and the Across FS-1130, which  is  a
         re-badged LEO FS-1130 scanner. See sane-leo(5) for details.

         This  backend  supports the Lexmark X1100 series of USB scanners. See
         sane-lexmark(5) for details.

         The ma1509 backend supports the  Mustek  BearPaw  1200F  USB  flatbed
         scanner. See sane-ma1509(5) for details.

         The  magicolor  backend  supports the KONICA MINOLTA magicolor 1690MF
         multi-function   printer/scanner/fax.   See   sane-magicolor(5)   for

         This  backend  supports  some Panasonic KVSS high speed scanners. See
         sane-matsushita(5) for details.

         The microtek backend  provides  access  to  the  "second  generation"
         Microtek  scanners  with SCSI-1 command set. See sane-microtek(5) for

         The microtek2 backend provides access to some Microtek scanners  with
         a SCSI-2 command set. See sane-microtek2(5) for details.

         The  SANE  mustek  backend supports most Mustek SCSI flatbed scanners
         including the Paragon and ScanExpress series and the 600 II N and 600
         II  EP  (non-SCSI).  Some  Trust  scanners  are  also  supported. See
         sane-mustek(5) for details.

         The mustek_pp backend provides access to Mustek parallel port flatbed
         scanners. See sane-mustek_pp(5) for details.

         The mustek_usb backend provides access to some Mustek ScanExpress USB
         flatbed scanners. See sane-mustek_usb(5) for details.

         The mustek_usb2 backend provides access to scanners using  the  SQ113
         chipset  like the Mustek BearPaw 2448 TA Pro USB flatbed scanner. See
         sane-mustek_usb2(5) for details.

         The SANE nec backend supports the NEC PC-IN500/4C SCSI  scanner.  See
         sane-nec(5) for details.

         The niash backend supports the Agfa Snapscan Touch and the HP ScanJet
         3300c, 3400c, and 4300c USB flatbed scanners. See  sane-niash(5)  for

         The SANE backend for Primax PagePartner. See sane-p5(5) for details.

         The  pie  backend  provides access to Pacific Image Electronics (PIE)
         and Devcom SCSI flatbed scanners. See sane-pie(5) for details.

         The pixma backend supports  Canon  PIXMA  MP  series  (multi-function
         devices).  See  sane-pixma(5) or
         for details.

         The SANE plustek backend supports USB flatbed scanners that  use  the
         National  Semiconductor  LM983[1/2/3]  chipset  aka  Merlin. Scanners
         using this LM983x chips include some models from Plustek, KYE/Genius,
         Hewlett-Packard,  Mustek, Umax, Epson, and Canon. See sane-plustek(5)
         for details.

         The SANE plustek_pp backend supports Plustek  parallel  port  flatbed
         scanners.  Scanners using the Plustek ASIC P96001, P96003, P98001 and
         P98003 include some models  from  Plustek,  KYE/Genius,  Primax.  See
         sane-plustek_pp(5) for details.

         The  ricoh  backend  provides  access  to the following Ricoh flatbed
         scanners: IS50 and IS60. See sane-ricoh(5) for details.

         The s9036 backend provides access to Siemens 9036  flatbed  scanners.
         See sane-s9036(5) for details.

         The  sceptre  backend  provides  access  to the Sceptre S1200 flatbed
         scanner. See sane-sceptre(5) for details.

         The  SANE  sharp  backend   supports   Sharp   SCSI   scanners.   See
         sane-sharp(5) for details.

         The  SANE  sm3600  backend  supports  the Microtek ScanMaker 3600 USB
         scanner. See sane-sm3600(5) for details.

         The SANE sm3840 backend supports  the  Microtek  ScanMaker  3840  USB
         scanner.  See sane-sm3840(5) for details.

         The  snapscan  backend  supports  AGFA SnapScan flatbed scanners. See
         sane-snapscan(5) for details.

         This backend supports the Fujitsu FCPA ScanPartner 15C flatbed  scan‐
         ner. See sane-sp15c(5) for details.

         The  sane-st400  backend  provides access to Siemens ST400 and ST800.
         See sane-st400(5) for details.

         The SANE tamarack backend supports Tamarack  Artiscan  flatbed  scan‐
         ners. See sane-tamarack(5) for details.

       teco1 teco2 teco3
         The  SANE teco1, teco2 and teco3 backends support some TECO scanners,
         usually sold under the Relisys, Trust, Primax, Piotech, Dextra names.
         See sane-teco1(5), sane-teco2(5) and sane-teco3(5) for details.

         The sane-u12 backend provides USB flatbed scanners based on Plustek's
         ASIC 98003 (parallel-port ASIC) and  a  GeneSys  Logics'  USB-parport
         bridge  chip  like  the  Plustek OpticPro U(T)12. See sane-u12(5) for

         The sane-umax backend provides access to  several  UMAX-SCSI-scanners
         and some Linotype Hell SCSI-scanners. See sane-umax(5) for details.

         The  sane-umax_pp  backend  provides  access  to  Umax  parallel port
         flatbed scanners and the HP 3200C. See sane-umax_pp(5) for details.

         The sane-umax1220u  backend  supports  the  UMAX  Astra  1220U  (USB)
         flatbed  scanner  (and  also  the  UMAX  Astra  2000U,  sort of). See
         sane-umax1220u(5) for details.

         The sane-xerox_mfp backend supports multiple  Samsung-based  Samsung,
         Xerox, and Dell scanners. See sane-xerox_mfp(5) for details.

       Also,    have   a   look   at   the   backend   information   page   at and the list of
       projects in /usr/local/share/doc/sane-backends/PROJECTS.


         Backend for Kodak DC210 Digital Camera. See sane-dc210(5).

         Backend for Kodak DC240 Digital Camera. See sane-dc240(5).

         Backend for Kodak DC20/DC25 Digital Cameras. See sane-dc25(5).

         Backend for the Polaroid Digital Microscope Camera. See sane-dmc(5).

         Backend for digital cameras supported by the gphoto2 library package.
         (See for more information and a  list  of  sup‐
         ported  cameras.)  Gphoto2 supports over 140 different camera models.
         However, please note that more  development  and  testing  is  needed
         before  all  of these cameras will be supported by SANE backend.  See

         Backend for Connectix QuickCam cameras. See sane-qcam(5).

         The sane-stv680 backend provides access to webcams with a stv680 chip.
         See sane-stv680(5) for details.

       Also,    have   a   look   at   the   backend   information   page   at and the list of
       projects in /usr/local/share/doc/sane-backends/PROJECTS.


         The  sane-dll  library implements a SANE backend that provides access
         to an arbitrary number of other SANE backends by dynamic loading. See

         The  SANE network daemon saned provides access to scanners located on
         different  computers  in  connection  with  the  net   backend.   See
         sane-net(5) and saned(8).

         PNM  image reader pseudo-backend. The purpose of this backend is pri‐
         marily to aid in debugging of SANE frontends. See sane-pnm(5).

         Backend for scanners that use the PINT (Pint  Is  Not  Twain)  device
         driver.   The  PINT driver is being actively developed on the OpenBSD
         platform, and has been ported to a few other *nix-like operating sys‐
         tems. See sane-pint(5).

         The SANE test backend is for testing frontends and the SANE installa‐
         tion.  It provides  test  pictures  and  various  test  options.  See

         The  sane-v4l library implements a SANE backend that provides generic
         access to video cameras and similar equipment using  the  V4L  (Video
         for Linux) API. See sane-v4l(5).

       Also,    have   a   look   at   the   backend   information   page   at and the list of
       projects in /usr/local/share/doc/sane-backends/PROJECTS.


       By  default,  all SANE backends (drivers) are loaded dynamically by the
       sane-dll meta backend. If you have  any  questions  about  the  dynamic
       loading,  read  sane-dll(5).  SANE frontend can also be linked to other
       backends directly by copying or linking  a  backend  to  in


       It's  not hard to write a SANE backend. It can take some time, however.
       You should have basic knowledge  of  C  and  enough  patience  to  work
       through the documentation and find out how your scanner works. Appended
       is a list of some documents that help to write backends and frontends.

       The SANE standard defines the application programming  interface  (API)
       that  is  used to communicate between frontends and backends. It can be
       found  at  /usr/local/share/doc/sane-backends/  (if   latex   is
       installed    on    your    system)    and    on   the   SANE   website:              (HTML),               or (Postscript).

       There     is    some    more    information    for    programmers    in
       /usr/local/share/doc/sane-backends/backend-writing.txt.   Most  of  the
       internal   SANE   routines   (sanei)   are  documented  using  doxygen:  Before a new backend  or  frontend
       project  is  started,  have  a  look at /usr/local/share/doc/sane-back
       ends/PROJECTS for projects that are planned or not  yet  included  into
       the    SANE    distribution    and    at   our   bug-tracking   system:

       There are some links on how to find out about the protocol of  a  scan‐

       If  you  start writing a backend or frontend or any other part of SANE,
       please contact the sane-devel mailing list for coordination so the same
       work isn't done twice.


              The backend configuration files.

              The static libraries implementing the backends.

              The  shared libraries implementing the backends (present on sys‐
              tems that support dynamic loading).

              SANE documentation: The standard, READMEs, text files for  back‐
              ends etc.


       If your device isn't found but you know that it is supported, make sure
       that it is detected by your operating system. For SCSI  and  USB  scan‐
       ners,  use  the  sane-find-scanner  tool  (see sane-find-scanner(1) for
       details). It prints one line for each scanner it has detected and  some
       comments  (#). If sane-find-scanner finds your scanner only as root but
       not as normal user, the  permissions  for  the  device  files  are  not
       adjusted  correctly.  If  the scanner isn't found at all, the operating
       system hasn't detected it and may need some help. Depending on the type
       of your scanner, read sane-usb(5) or sane-scsi(5).  If your scanner (or
       other device) is not connected over the SCSI bus or USB, read the back‐
       end's manual page for details on how to set it up.

       Now  your  scanner is detected by the operating system but not by SANE?
       Try scanimage -L.  If the scanner is not found, check  that  the  back‐
       end's  name is mentioned in /usr/local/etc/sane.d/dll.conf.  Some back‐
       ends are commented out by default. Remove the  comment  sign  for  your
       backend  in this case. Also some backends aren't compiled at all if one
       of their prerequisites are  missing.  Examples  include  dc210,  dc240,
       canon_pp, hpsj5s, gphoto2, pint, qcam, v4l, net, sm3600, snapscan, pnm.
       If you need one of these backends and they aren't available,  read  the
       build  instructions  in the README file and the individual manual pages
       of the backends.

       Another reason for not being detected by scanimage -L may be a  missing
       or  wrong configuration in the backend's configuration file. While SANE
       tries to automatically find most scanners, some  can't  be  setup  cor‐
       rectly  without  the  intervention  of  the administrator. Also on some
       operating systems auto-detection may not work. Check the backend's man‐
       ual page for details.

       If your scanner is still not found, try setting the various environment
       variables that are available to assist in debugging.   The  environment
       variables are documented in the relevant manual pages.  For example, to
       get the maximum amount of debug information when testing a Mustek  SCSI
       scanner,  set  environment variables SANE_DEBUG_DLL, SANE_DEBUG_MUSTEK,
       and SANE_DEBUG_SANEI_SCSI to 128 and then invoke scanimage  -L  .   The
       debug messages for the dll backend tell if the mustek backend was found
       and loaded at all. The mustek messages explain what the mustek  backend
       is  doing while the SCSI debugging shows the low level handling. If you
       can't find out what's going on by checking the messages carefully, con‐
       tact the sane-devel mailing list for help (see REPORTING BUGS below).

       Now that your scanner is found by scanimage -L, try to do a scan: scan
       image >image.pnm.  This command starts a scan for the  default  scanner
       with  default settings. All the available options are listed by running
       scanimage --help.  If scanning aborts with an error  message,  turn  on
       debugging  as  mentioned above. Maybe the configuration file needs some
       tuning, e.g. to setup the path to a firmware that  is  needed  by  some
       scanners.  See the backend's manual page for details. If you can't find
       out what's wrong, contact sane-devel.

       To check that the SANE libraries are installed correctly  you  can  use
       the  test  backend,  even  if  you  don't  have a scanner or other SANE

              scanimage -d test -T

       You should get a list of PASSed tests. You can do the  same  with  your
       backend by changing "test" to your backend's name.

       So  now  scanning  with  scanimage works and you want to use one of the
       graphical frontends like xsane, xscanimage, or  quiteinsane  but  those
       frontends  don't  detect  your  scanner?  One  reason  may  be that you
       installed two versions of SANE.  E.g. the version that was installed by
       your  distribution  in  /usr  and  one  you  installed  from  source in
       /usr/local/.  Make sure that only one  version  is  installed.  Another
       possible  reason  is,  that your system's dynamic loader can't find the
       SANE libraries. For Linux,  make  sure  that  /etc/  contains
       /usr/local/lib  and does not contain /usr/local/lib/sane.  See also the
       documentation of the frontends.


       We appreciate any help we can get. Please have a look at our  web  page
       about contributing to SANE:


       For  reporting  bugs  or  requesting  new features, please use our bug-
       tracking system:  You  can  also
       contact  the author of your backend directly. Usually the email address
       can be found in the /usr/local/share/doc/sane-backends/AUTHORS file  or
       the  backend's  manpage.  For general discussion about SANE, please use
       the SANE mailing list sane-devel (see
       ing-lists.html for details).


       saned(8),     sane-find-scanner(1),    scanimage(1),    sane-abaton(5),
       sane-agfafocus(5),            sane-apple(5),             sane-artec(5),
       sane-artec_eplus48u(5),   sane-as6e(5),   sane-avision(5),  sane-bh(5),
       sane-canon(5), sane-canon630u(5),  sane-canon_dr(5),  sane-canon_pp(5),
       sane-cardscan(5),  sane-coolscan2(5),  sane-coolscan(5), sane-dc210(5),
       sane-dc240(5), sane-dc25(5), sane-dll(5),  sane-dmc(5),  sane-epson(5),
       sane-fujitsu(5),   sane-genesys(5),   sane-gphoto2(5),  sane-gt68xx(5),
       sane-hp(5),     sane-hpsj5s(5),     sane-hp3500(5),     sane-hp3900(5),
       sane-hp4200(5),    sane-hp5400(5),    sane-hpljm1005(5),   sane-ibm(5),
       sane-kodak(5), sane-leo(5), sane-lexmark(5), sane-ma1509(5),
       sane-matsushita(5),    sane-microtek2(5),   sane-microtek(5),   sane-mustek(5),
       sane-mustek_pp(5),       sane-mustek_usb(5),       sane-mustek_usb2(5),
       sane-nec(5),  sane-net(5),  sane-niash(5),  sane-pie(5),  sane-pint(5),
       sane-plustek(5),   sane-plustek_pp(5),    sane-pnm(5),    sane-qcam(5),
       sane-ricoh(5),     sane-s9036(5),     sane-sceptre(5),    sane-scsi(5),
       sane-sharp(5),   sane-sm3600(5),   sane-sm3840(5),    sane-snapscan(5),
       sane-sp15c(5),    sane-st400(5),    sane-stv680(5),   sane-tamarack(5),
       sane-teco1(5), sane-teco2(5), sane-teco3(5), sane-test(5), sane-u12(5),
       sane-umax1220u(5),    sane-umax(5),    sane-umax_pp(5),    sane-usb(5),
       sane-v4l(5), sane-xerox_mfp(5)


       David Mosberger-Tang and many many more (see /usr/local/share/doc/sane-
       backends/AUTHORS  for  details).   This man page was written by Henning
       Meier-Geinitz. Quite a lot of text was taken from  the  SANE  standard,
       several man pages, and README files.

                                  14 Jul 2008                          sane(7)

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